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名校情結、地獄考試、焦慮媽媽……日本教育系統內卷實錄


更新日期:2021-01-13 12:18:53來源:網絡點擊:684341
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——KARUIER·FAN·WOERFULUN

HELANJIZHE、ZHENGZHIPINGLUNJIAWOERFULUNYONG“XITONG”ZHEGECIJIESHIRIBENDEQUANLIJIEGOU。ZAIDONGJINGCHANGDA30NIANDEGONGZUOHESHENGHUOZHONG,WOERFULUNTONGGUOSHIDIGUANCHAYUCAIFANG,XIEJIULEJI《JUYUDAO》ZHIHOU21SHIJIZUIXINRIBENSHEHUIGUANCHAZHUZUO。

BENWENZHAIZIWOERFULUN《RIBENQUANLIJIEGOUZHIMI》ZHONGDUIRIBENDEJIAOYUDETANTAOHEPIPAN,ZHANSHILETONGYANGCHUYU“XITONG”ZHIZHONGDEJIAOYU,ZENYANGJIANGXUESHENGZHIYUFUZADEDENGJIGUANXIZHIZHONG。QIZHONG“WEIMINGXIAOLUN”、“DIYUKAOSHI”、“JIAOYUMAMA”DENGNEIRONG,WUBUWEIDANGJINZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEJIAOYUXIANZHUANGDAILAIJINGSHI。

順從的教育系統

YOUYIGEHENFENGCIDANBINGBULINGRENJINGCHADESHISHI,JIAOSHIMENDELIANMENGRIJIAOZU,ZHEGEHAODOUDEFANXITONGJIGOUNENGGOUCUNZAI,QIAHAOSHIYINWEIRIJIAOZUZAIPEIYUXITONG、QIANGHUAXITONGZHONGJIONGRANGEYIYOUHUXIANGZHENGDOUDEGEBUFENJIANNINGJULIDENGFANGMIAN,FAHUILEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

日教組阻止能以更明確的方式來服務系統的道德教育介入。雖然日本教育因此被管理階層中的某個重要部分認為有著巨大缺陷,但它還是傳授了一種確實對系統有利的意識形態。這點很少有人意識到。不過更為重要的是,教育幾乎完全屈從于維護成績等級的制度。學校成為一個揀選機制,作為招聘代理人將學生安置在各種互相重疊的等級關系中。在日本被認為最好的初等、中等、高等學校中,這個功能都占據著主導地位,其重要性被強調到幾乎排除其他任何事情的程度,它對國家年輕人的知識發展傷害很大。

反知識分子的學校

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RIBENXUESHENGZAIGUOJIBISHIZHONGCHENGJIFEIRAN,ZHEYIDIANYEBULINGRENYIWAI。RIBENXUESHENGCONGXIAOXUEKAISHIYIZHIDAOGAOZHONGDOUZAIJIESHOUZHEZHONGXUNLIAN。DANRUGUOZHEXIEKAOSHISHIWEILEPINGGUNENGLI,BIRUSHUODECHUJIELUNDENENGLI,GENJUSHISHIJIAYICHOUXIANGDENENGLI,GUANLIANCHOUXIANGGAINIANDENENGLI,ZAIYIPIANLUNWENZHONGZUZHIZIJISIXIANGDENENGLI,YONGLINGYIZHONGYUYANBIAODAZIJIDENENGLI,YOUHUOZHEJINJINSHITIWENTIDENENGLI,NEIJIUKEYIJIESHICHURIBENJIAOYUXITONGDAODIYOUSHENMEQUEXIAN。

日本學校的目標與“教育”這個詞本來的含義——產生并發展思想的力量,而不只是灌輸事實性的信息——有著天壤之別。日本的教育系統根本談不上磨礪受教育之人的推理能力,而且就整體而言,它對于這樣的目標還懷有敵意。自發推理以及自主行為,幾乎在所有學校都受到系統性的壓制;學校對于原創能力沒有任何耐心,也不會教育學生進行邏輯思考或是提出正確的問題——實際上最好什么問題也別問。教學重點反而是死記硬背。

日本那些“學得好”的學生,他們腦子里裝著大量的事實;如果他們能將這些事實串聯起來并形成清晰的人生觀的話,那也是他們完全依靠自己做到的。日本教育系統中凌駕于一切之上的目的,用一位日本教育權威人士的看法可總結為“為一個高科技、精英統治的系統塑造一代有紀律的勞動者,這個系統要求的是高度社會化的個人,他可以在一個嚴格的、等級化的、經過精密調整的組織環境中可靠地履行職責”。

JUEDINGSHUINENGDADAOSHENMECENGCI、CHUZAIXITONGNAGEDENGJIZHONGDENAGEBUFEN——RIBENJIAOYUSUOYUNXINGDEZHEGEGONGNENG,ZAIDABUFEN(RUGUOBUSHISUOYOU)GUOJIAZHONGDOUNENGZHAODAO;DANSHI,RIBENJIAOYUWANCHENGZHEYIGONGNENGDEFANGSHI,YAOBIRENHEXIFANGGUOJIADOUGENGWUQING、GENGYANGE。TASUOSUZAODEJINGYINGFENBUZAIZHENGGEXITONGDANGZHONG,TONGSHIYOUFUYUXITONGYININGJULI。ZHEYIDIANYOUXIELEISIYINGGUODEGONGLIXUEXIAOHEDAXUEDEXIAOYOUWANGLUO,DANZAIXINGSHISHANGQUEGENGDAGENGGUANG。

通往巔峰之路

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JINRUFAGUOZHENGFUDEXUESHENGKENENGRENWEITAMENRENSHIDAOLEZHEYIXIANXIANG,ERQIEHUANZHICHULE“DAXUEXIAO”(grandes ecolés)SUOBANYANDEJIAOSE。DAN“DAXUEXIAO”DEDUOYANGXINGQUEGAODEDUO,ERQIEXUESHENGZAINEILIXUESHENMEZHUANYE、XUEXIYOUDUOMENULIFEICHANGZHONGYAO。

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大學的教學質量從來都不是攀上日本管理機構高層的標準。19世紀最后的十年中,有一點變得非常明確,那就是政治決策將成為經由考試選拔出來的某個階級的特權,而不再是通過血緣繼承或是其他一些非精英統治標準所選拔出來的某個階級的特權。爭論的中心并不在教學質量,甚至也不關乎教授的內容,而是哪個權威通過怎樣的考試才可以提供這樣的選拔。今天的東大學生在法律課上實際吸收到的東西,成為他們通往行政等級頂峰的通道,但這些內容若是和眾多歐洲大學,以及更好的美國大學里學生在畢業前所必須知道的東西比較起來,就根本不值一提。

排名最低的學校,其教學質量不一定就比那些精英學校差。排名中上的那些大學,不管它們會變得有多差,也不會失去它們的排名和名聲。雖然官僚機構和大公司舉行入門考試,而且這個考試理論上是向每個人開放的,但事實上他們在招聘的時候所依據的卻是一個配額系統,這個系統按照基本上已經確立好的比例從各個大學中招收畢業生。教育等級所對應的是經濟—官僚等級。一個排名中等的公司做夢也不敢招聘一名東大的畢業生,基于同樣的原因,一名中央大學的畢業生很少能攀到商界的頂層,要想攀到政府中的頂層是根本不可能的。

RIBENRENDUITAMENJIAOWANGDERENSHANGLESHENMEXUEXIAOYOUZHUMINRUIDEGANZHI。WOYOUYIWEIPENGYOU,TABUSHIRIBENREN,YOUYICITADENVPENGYOUDUITASHUO,JIEXIALAIJIGEYUEBUYAOJIANTA,YINWEITADEJIEJIEBEIANPAILEYIZHUANGHUNSHI,NANFANGZHENGDUITAJIEJIEJINXINGDIAOCHA,ERQIEKENENGHUICHENGWEITAJIEFUDENEIWEINANZIBIYEYUDONGDA。RENHESHIQING——BAOKUOMOUGEJIATINGCHENGYUANYUWAIGUORENDEGUANXI——DOUBUKEYIZUAIYUZHEMEYIWEIZHANSHIWANGLAOWUDELIANYIN。

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畢業幾乎是自動的。能夠證明自己比其他大多數人更努力學習的學生,更有機會進入官僚機構和頂級商業公司中。相比那些來自排名較低的學校中的更有能力的畢業生而言,有名學校的畢業生就算四年當中無所事事地虛度光陰,也總能找到更高等級的職位。對大多數學生來說,大學意味著純粹的放松,是學生們在進入商業組織這一等級森嚴的世界之前短暫的放縱。

為了職業發展而用功

BUSHAORIBENRENRENWEI,XUESHENGMENZAI“GENGHAO”DEDAXUEZHONGLIYINGDEDAO“XIUXI”,YINWEIJINRUZHEXIEDAXUESHIZAISHIYIGEJIWEISHANGNAOJINDEGUOCHENG。SUIRANJINQIANHEFUMUDEGUANXIYOUSHINENGQIDAOZUOYONG(TEBIESHIZAIJINRUYIXUEYUANHEYAYIXUEXIAOSHI),DANZAIJUEDADUOSHUQINGKUANGXIA,XIONGXINBOBODENIANQINGRENBIXUZAIRUXUEKAOSHIZHONGSHENGGUOSHIGE、ERSHIGESHENZHIGENGDUODEDUISHOUCAIXING。YAOZUODAOZHEDIAN,ZUIJIANDANDEFANGFAJIUSHIJINRUYIGEYINSHENGCHANDAPICHENGGONGDEKAOSHENGERXIANGYOUSHENGYUDEGAOZHONG。SHISHISHANG,RIBENDEGAOZHONGJIUSHIYIZHEGEBIAOZHUNLAIPAIMINGDE。QUANGUO5453SUOGAOZHONGLIYOU3SUOGAOZHONGWEIDONGJINGDAXUETIGONGLEDAYUE10%DECHENGGONGKAOSHENG。

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從搖籃到名校

某些昂貴的私立學院體系中包括了大學和它們的“附屬”高中、初中、小學,有時甚至還有幼兒園,可以提供相對順利的從小學到大學的升學路線。一旦某個學生走在這條路上,各個級別的考試基本上就是走走過場了。這就是為人所知的“電梯”系統。而要搭上電梯,最好的方法莫過于進入一家能引領學童進入更高級別學校的幼兒園。于是,就出現了一些著名的且十分昂貴的幼兒園,這些幼兒園真的進行自己的入學考試。

ZAIWEIYUDIANTIDINGDUANDEZHIMINGDESILIDAXUEZHONG,QINGYINGDAXUE、XUEXIYUANDAXUE、CHENGCHENGXUEYUAN、QINGSHANXUEYUANDOUSHICONGYOUERYUANJIBIEKAISHIDE。JUYIWEIZHIQINGZHESHUO,YOUERYUANKAOSHITONGCHANGCESHIDESHIRENDURIWENWUSHIYINTUZHONGZIMUDENENGLI、DAJIMUDENENGLIDENGDENG。WODEYIWEIXIANRENCANJIAGUOYICICHANGGUIKAOSHI。DAOLEMOUGEGUANJIANSHIKE,TANEIHUANZAIMANSHANXUEBUDEHAIZIDEDAOLEYIKUAIBAOHAODETANGGUO,SUOYOUDEYANGUANGDOUZAIZHUSHIZHUTA,KANTASHIJIANGBAOZHUANGZHIZHENGQIDIDIEHAONI,HUANSHISUISHOUWANGDISHANGYIRENG。

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ZHUIQIUGUANCHANGZHIWEIDENVHAIHUIYUXITONGZHONGDENANHAIZHANKAIJINGZHENG。DANSHI,DUIYUDABUFENXIONGXINBOBODENVHAIJIACHANGLAISHUO,SILINVZIXUEXIAOYECUNZAIZHULEISIDEDENGJIZHIDU,ZHEGEDENGJIZHONGDEPAIMINGYEHENZHONGYAO,BUJINDUIWEINVERANPAI“HAOHUNSHI”DEMUQINERYANZHONGYAO,DUINEIXIEWEIGUYUANXUNZHAOYILIUXINNIANGDEGONGSIGUZHULAISHUOYEHENZHONGYAO。WEIZHIZAOYETIGONGGAOZHILIANGGONGRENDELANLINGXUEXIAOJIETIYESHICUNZAIDE。

“考試地獄”

JIAOYUXITONGSHIZHENGGEXITONGZHONGZUISHOURENPIPINGDEBUFEN。YIWEIQIANTONGCHANSHENGFUXIANGRENWEI,“WOMENXIANZAIDEJIAOYUXITONGSIHUZHINENGCHANCHUDIJIBANBENDEJIQIREN”。RIBENDUOCAIDUOYIDESANWENJIARENWEI,ZHEYANGCHANCHUDEDOUSHIXUNLIANYOUSUDEHAIBAO。DAZHONGYIBANDOUHUIXIGUANXINGDIQIANZE“KAOSHIDIYU”YIJIYOUCICHANSHENGDEYIZHONGSHEHUIXINGTAI:“JIAOYUMAMA”(BODUOLEHAIZIZHENGCHANGDETONGNIANSHENGHUO,BIZHUTAMENPANDENGJIAOYUJIETIDEMAMA)。

教育媽媽受到強大動機的驅使。在很大程度上,母親也要為孩子的成績負責,孩子在考試中的成敗對她在鄰里中的地位有著巨大影響。家庭會認為在這位年輕的學生身上已經投資巨大,有時家庭在備考過程中的表現就像是面臨生死攸關的時刻一樣。考試失敗會帶來心理上的毀滅性打擊,而且不僅僅是對考生而言。在日本,大多數日本中產家庭生活的戲劇性來自對孩子有超人般表現的要求,以及“考試地獄”影響了整個家庭的那種緊張氣氛。

HAIZIYAOZHENGMINGTAMENZIJIYESHIRENZHENDE,YUSHIJIUYAOFANGQIAIHAO、TIYUYIJISHEJIAOSHENGHUO,WEIDESHIKEYIQUANXINTOURUJIJIANG——TONGCHANGSHILIANGNIANZHIHOU——LAIDAODEKAOSHI。HAIZIJIUXUYAOZAIXUEXIAOHEXUEXISHUSHANGWANKEHOU,JIXUYONGGONGDAOSHENYE。YIJIAXUEXISHUWEI12SUIHAITONGKAIBANDETIANYABAN,CONGZHOULIUWANSHANG9DIANKAISHIYIZHIDAOZHOURIZAOSHANG6DIANCAIJIESHU。YOUXIEHAIZIBEIPOJINXINGTILINAILIXUNLIAN,ZHERANGRENXIANGQIJUNYINGLIDEZUOFA。14SUIDEHAIZILINGCHEN1DIANHUANZAIXUEXIYEBINGBUHANJIAN。ZAIJIGEXIAOSHIDETIANYASHIXUEXIHOU,TAMENJIHUBUNENGXISHOUDAOSHENMEDONGXI,BUGUOZHEGEWENTIWUGUANJINYAO;TAMENXIANGSHIJIEZHENGMING,TAMENHENRENZHENERQIEJUBEIZHEZHONGBIXUDENAILI。

ZHIYAOHAIZIHUANNENGRENSHOU,ZHEYANGDEXUANBAXITONGJIUNENGYIZHIZOUXIAO。RUGUOBUKAOLVTAMENYUMUQINDEGUANXI,YEJIUWUFALIJIEHAIZIMENDEZILVXINGWEI。DIANXINGDERIBENJIATINGHUICANKAOSHIJIEYUNZUODEPUSHITIXIXIANGHAITONGGUANSHUZHENGQUEXINGWEIDELINIAN,ERHUICAOZONGHAITONGDEQINGGAN。NANHAIHUONVHAIYIBANTONGGUOMUQINDUITAMENDEXINGWEIDETAIDUBIANHUA,LAIPANDUANSHENMESHIHAODEXINGWEI,SHENMESHIHUAIDEXINGWEI。ZHEMEZUODEYIGEHOUGUOJIUSHI“JIAOYUMAMA”NENGZAIHAIZISHENSHANGZHIRUFEICHANGQIANGDEFUZUIGAN,BINGBATADANGZUOYIZHONGBIANCE。

YUKAOSHIJIAOLVHUOSHISHIBAIXIANGGUANDEZISHASHIJIAN,SHOUDAOGONGZHONGDEPUBIANGUANZHU,GONGZHONGYOUCIXINGCHENGLEZHEMEYIZHONGYINXIANG,JIUSHIKAOSHIDIYUSHIXUELINGERTONGSIWANGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。SHISHIBINGFEIRUCI,BUGUO,CHANGNIANDEKAOSHIJIAOLVHAOWUYIWENDIJIAJULERENGEDEJIXINGFAZHAN,YIJIFUMUHEHAIZIZHIJIANGUANXIDEKUNNAN。

盡管事實上每個日本人都會認為考試系統很殘酷,而且應該被廢止,但大部分人也意識到沒有什么能夠改變這種選拔方式。總的來說,這套選拔方式極好地適應這個系統。即使灌輸進他們大腦中的一堆事實基本上毫無用處,即使是學生(比如在英語學習中)養成了很難改掉的壞習慣,但那些被選中的、達到頂峰的人將會非常堅強,他們的記憶力超強。官場和商界更看重的是堅持不懈、奉獻精神和記憶力,而非創造力。

ZHEXIEGUANCHAJIEGUOBINGBUXINXIAN。MEIGUOMUSHIWEILIAN·GELIFUSI(William Griffis)SHIDAORIBENZUIZAONEIPIWAIGUOCHUANJIAOSHIZHIYI,TAZAI1874NIANMIAOXIERIBENJIAOSHISHUO,TAMENDE“ZHUYAORENWUSHITIANMAN……XUESHENGDESIXIANG。TUOZHANHUOKAIFANANHAIDESIWEILILIANG、KUODATADESIWEISHIYE、JIAOTADULISIKAO,ZHEXIEQIAQIACHENGLEJIAOSHISUOZUNAODESHI”。

XUEXIAOXITONGPEIYULEGUANYUANJIECENGCHENGYUANGAODUTONGYIDEJIATINGBEIJING。SUISHUOCHENGGONGDEJIETIDUISUOYOURENSHIKAIFANGDE,DANPINKUNDEJIATINGFUDANBUQISILIXUEXIAODEANGGUIFEIYONG,YEHENSHAONENGGOUTIGONGBIYAODEHUANJING,WEIHAIZIJINRUZHUMINGDEZHENGFUJIGOUZUOZHUNBEI。RIBENGONGSIYUXIANRENZHENTIAOXUANDE“CHENGYUAN”,HUIHEYIQIANDETONGXUEBAOCHIGUANXI,ERTONGXUEMENZAIXITONGQITABUFENZHONGDEWEIZHI,KENENGHUIGEIGONGSIDAILAIJIAZHI。

FEIHETONGGUANXIYIJIFALVWAIDEGUANXIZAIRIBENQIYEHEGUANLIAOSHENGHUOZHONGSHIFENZHONGYAO,WEIZHEYIBIANZHIJINGXIDEWANGLUODAILAILERUSHENJINGXITONGBANDEGONGNENG。TAKEYIRANGZHONGYAODEXINXIZAIJIFENZHONGZHINEI,CHUANDIDAOFENBUZAIZHENGGEXITONGZHONGDEGEGEXIANGGUANLINGYUZHONGQU。TAYEYOUZHUYUJIANHUANXITONGCHENGYUANZHIJIANDEMOCA。ERZAISHANGYEJITUANZHONG,GENJUDINGCENGYUANGONGJIUDUDEXUEXIAOERCHANSHENGDETUANTIJIANFEIZHENGSHIDEGOUTONG,YEDEDAOLEJIAQIANG。

本文節選自

《RIBENQUANLIJIEGOUZHIMI》

ZUOZHE: [HE] KARUIER·FAN·WOERFULUN

CHUBANSHE: ZHONGXINCHUBANJITUAN

CHUPINFANG: XINSIWENHUA

YUANZUOMING: The Enigma of Japanese Power

YIZHE: RENSONGHUA

CHUBANNIAN: 2020-10

XIANGGUAN:

“在這里,自由、瘋狂、死亡說了算”“歷史進程對于音樂起什么樣的作用,在這個問題上不同觀點嚴重對立。對于古典音樂來說,長時間以來占上風的觀點,是認為音樂與社會隔離,斷定音樂是自身完備的語言。在高度政治化的20世紀,這種隔離一再發生破裂。”在《余下只有噪音》的前言中,亞歷克斯·羅斯這樣描述古典音樂與20世紀。可能1900對于現代人來說過于遙遠,但是德彪西、托馬斯·曼、李斯特、勛伯格等引發巨大回響的名字,卻是作者“聆聽”20世紀的肇始。請伴隨德彪西的鋼琴曲《月光》,來回看這激蕩的20世紀初期歐洲音樂、文化與政治歷史。1900年代的維也納在若干早期作品中,托馬斯·曼為世紀末很普遍的..

“很多人都過著又扎勁又凄涼的生活”電影《大佛普拉斯》前段時間,王占黑、btr、張定浩、顧湘幾位青年作家一起聊了聊她的新書《小花旦》。王占黑:年輕人不可偷襲,要講武德。在現代人的生活里,防備比邀請要多得多,但其實是可以創造出很多邀請的。btr:我也很討厭“斜杠”這個字,感覺它發展到一定階段就成了“杠精”。張定浩:你要理解每個人身上歡樂的東西,才能更加被他們的其他東西打動。一個有能力寫出歡樂天真的東西的作家才有能力寫出殘酷和痛苦,這兩者是一體的,占黑身上很好地呈現出這一點。顧湘:我很關心公園里的那些老頭子,我覺得他們生活超豐富的,就像美芬,她也活得很“扎勁”,雖然也有..

這所只存在了8年的大學,定格了一代人的風骨聞一多、鄧稼先、楊振寧、李政道、王希季、朱自清、華羅庚、陳寅恪、錢穆、費孝通、許淵沖……八十二年前的中國,曾有一所大學將這些名字連結在一起——西南聯大。住在40人男生宿舍的楊振寧曾回憶:聯大的地面是泥土壓成的,一些教室和圖書館窗戶沒玻璃,風吹時必須用東西把紙壓住,否則就會吹掉。“在聯大食堂搶飯,第一碗不要盛得太滿,一定要盛半滿,這樣吃完了才有機會去盛第二碗。”在西南聯大度過青春歲月時,他們還不是大師。遷徙西南聯大的校歌第一句是:“萬里長征,辭卻了五朝宮闕。”只是,這場長征沒有軍人,都是些老師學生。1937年7月,盧溝橋事變爆發,日軍..

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