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機器人進化史:走向哆啦A夢還是HAL9000?


更新日期:2021-02-03 14:38:56來源:網絡點擊:694925
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RUGUOYAOJUCHUZHEGESHIJIESHANGZUIZHUMINGDEJIQIREN,DUOLAAMENGJUEDUIKEYIMINGLIEQIANMAO。ZHEWEINICHENGWEI“LANPANGZI”DEJIQIRENDANSHENGYU22SHIJI,BUJINSHIRENLEIZUIDELIDEZHUSHOU,YESHIZUIQINMIDEPENGYOU。DUOLAAMENGHEYEBIDAXIONGZHIJIANJINGYOUXUNCHANGDIANDICHANSHENGDEYOUQING,HAOWUYIWENSHIZHENZHIDONGRENDE。TAHUIYINWEIBIERENGUANTAJIAO“LIMAO”ERFENFENBUPING,YEHUIYIBENZHENGJINGDIGENYEBIDAXIONGJIANGDAOLI,JIAOTAXUEHUIZILI。

YONGYOUCHAOYUERENLEIZISHENZHISHANGDENENGLI,TONGSHIYOUJUYOURENLEIDEGEXING、QINGGANSHENZHISHIXINGGEQUEXIAN。DUOLAAMENGQIAQIASHIRENLEIXINMUZHONGJIQIRENFAZHANDEYIGELIXIANGDEQUSHI:JIQIRENYUELAIYUEXIANGREN。

DANQIANGJIADESHANYIYEKENENGHUICHENGWEIEYI。ASE·KELAKEZAI1969NIANCHUBANDE《2001》ZHONGFEICHUANDECHAOJIDIANNAOHAL9000,BIANSHIZHELEI“XIEE”JIQIRENDEDIANXING。JIQIRENYONGYOULERENLEIDEXINZHIHESIWEINENGLI,BINGJIANGQIFAHUIDAOJIZHI,DANZHEYEZHONGXIALEHUIMIEDEZHONGZI:WEILEZAIZHUIQIUZHENSHIYUYINMANZHENXIANGZHONGWEICHIYIZHIXING,JIQIRENDUIFEICHUANSHANGDERENLEIJINXINGTUSHA。DUOLAAMENGYUHAL9000KEYISHUOSHIRENLEIDUIWEILAIJIQIRENXIANGXIANGDELIANGTIAOFENCHAQITU。RENANZHAOZIJIDEYANGZICHUANGZAOLEJIQIREN,ZIRANYEHUIGENJUZIJIDEJINGYANQUYUCEJIQIRENDEFAZHAN。BIQIRENLEIMIANDUIZISHENMINGYUNGANDAODEWUZHIHEWULI,JIQIRENZUOWEIRENLEIDEZAOWU,TADEMINGYUNLIYINGYOURENLEILAIZHIPEI。RANER,RUTONGRENLEICHANGCHANGGAOHUYAOFANKANGZIJIDEMINGYUN,ZUOZIJIDEZHUREN,JIQIRENWEIHEBUKEYIQUFANKANGRENLEINI?

SHIDAIDEFAZHANQUERANGWOMENYUELAIYUEHUAIYIRENYUJIQIZHIJIANDEQUBIE。GONGYESHIDAIZAILIUSHUIXIANSHANGGONGZUODEGONGREN,YIRUCHILUNGUILVDEZHUANDONG,BUXUYAOJIARURENHEZIWODESIKAO。RENGONGZHINENGJISHUDEFAZHAN,RANGJIQIYURENLEIZHIJIANDECHAYIBIANDEYUELAIYUEXIAO。DANGSHUYIQIANWANJIDINGZHU“BAILING”MINGTOUDENIANQINGREN,MEITIANWANGFANYUGONGSIGEZIJIANHESANPINGMIDECHUZUWUSHI,GoogleZHINENGJIQIRENQUEZAITIANYEZHONGTIYANPAOKUDEKUAIGAN。

JIQIYUELAIYUEXIANGREN,ERRENYUELAIYUEXIANGJIQI。RENLEIYUJIQIGONGTONGDEWEILAI,SHIZOUXIANGDUOLAAMENG,HUANSHITONGWANGHAL9000?XIAMIANZHEFENGUANYUJIQIRENFAZHAN,HUOZHESHUOSHIJINHUADESHIJIANBIAO,HUOXUKEYIGEICHUYIGEKENENGDEDAAN——JINGUANZAIJIQIRENDEBIRANSHIJIEZHONG,“KENENG”SHIGEJIQIDE“CUOWU”。

01

公元一世紀

YALISHANDALIYADEXILUOFAXIANLEZHENGQIDONGLIYUANLIHEHONGXIYUANLI,BINGJIANGQIYONGZAIJIQIZHIZUOSHANG。ZHIZAOCHULEXUDUOQIQIAODEJIQIREN。QIZHONGBAOKUOSHUILIDAIDONGFASHENGDEQUENIAO、KEYIZIDONGYINSHUIDERENOUHESHOUCHIKONGQIYASUOYUANLIZOUXIANGLABADEJIQIREN。ZHEXIEJIXIEDEGONGZUOYUANLIZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOHOUSHIDEYIXILIEJIXIEYOUXIJIGUAN。LUOMADIGUOSHIDAI,YIYUCHIFENGKUANGMINGCHUISHICEDEHUANGDIKELAODIWEIXUANYAOQUANSHI,TEYIZAIYIDALIZHONGBUDEFUQIHUJUXINGSHENGDADEYULEBIAOYANHUODONG。TAANPAILECHUIZHULABADEHAISHENJIQIRENLONGZHONGDENGCHANG。DANYANDAOZHONGTU,JIQIQUETURANHUAIDIAO,WUFADONGDAN。BORANDANUDEHUANGDIJINGRANXIALINGZHIZAOJIQIDEGONGJIANGSHANGTAIBIAOYANROUBOJUEDOULAIQUYUEFENNUYOUSHIXUEDEGUANZHONG。

ZHONGSHIJIWANQIGONGDIANZHUANGYUANZHONGDEEZUOJUJIGUANYELAIYUANYUXILUODESHEJILINGGAN。ZAI14SHIJIJIALAIDEAISIDANCHENGBAOZHONG,ANTUWABOJUELUOBOTEERSHIXIALINGJIANZAOLEYIZHENGTAOJIXIEWANOUYIYULEFANGKE,QIZHONGBAOKUOSHENPIZHENZHENGHOUPIDEJIXIEHOUZI、YUNDONGHAOJIAO、JIXIEDAXIANGHEGONGSHANYANG,YIJIYEZHUTOU。DAO15SHIJI,LUOBOTEERSHIDEZAICHUANJICHENGRENFEILIPUSANSHIDUIJIXIEZHUANGZHIJINXINGLEQUANMIANFANXIU。LIMIANSHEJILEXUDUOZHUONONGYOUKEDEJIQIBAXI,ZHUYAOGONGNENGJIUSHIRANGCUBUJIFANGDEFANGKESHISHENZAISHISHEN:

GONGYUANYISHIJIZUOYOU,XILASHUXUEJIAYALISHANDALIYADEXILUOFAMINGDEQIZHUANQIUSHIYITU。

“SANGERENWUDEHUAXIANG,SUIYIPENSHUINONGSHIYOUKE……YOUNVYOUKEGUOLAIDESHIHOUJIQIJIUHUISASHUI,HUANYOUYIGEZHUANGZHI,RUGUONIYIPENGXUANNIU,TAJIUKAISHIQIAODANIDELIAN,LINGYIGEZHUANGZHI,DANFANCONGTAMIANQIANJINGGUO,TADOUHUIPAINIDETOUHEJIAN……XIAMIANJIELEBAGENGUANZI,FANSHINVSHIKAOJINJIUWANGTAMENSHENSHANGPENSHUI。”

ZHETAOEZUOJUJIQISHENGMINGYUANBO——CONGLINGYIGEJIAODUSHUOYESHIEMINGYUANYANG,DANRENRENYOURENBUZHUQINZIGANSHOUYIXIAERBEIJIQIXISHUAHUNSHENSHITOUDEGANJUE。16SHIJIZHUMINGDEZHEXUEJIAMENGTIANCENGZAOFANGAOGESIBAOWAIDEYIZUOGUIZUDEBISHUHUAYUAN,TAFAXIANNEILIDEEZUOJUJIQIBUJINLUMANGERQIEXIALIU,ZHUANMENCHENFUNVMENKAIXINGUANYUSHITURANPENSHUI,“SHUIGAOHERENQIPING,BAZHEXIEFUNVDEQUNZIHEDATUIQUANDOUNONGSHILE”。

ZHETAOEZUOJUJIQIZHIDAO17SHIJIWANQIZHUJIANSHUAILUO,YUANYINBUXIANG,HENKENENGSHIRENMENDUIEZUOJUDERONGRENDUSUIZHUSHEHUIWENMINGDUDETIGAOERJIANGDILE。DANTAZAOCHENGDEGAOXIAOXIAOGUOQUELIUCHUANZHIJIN,JINTIANJINGDIANDONGHUA《MAOHELAOSHU》ZHONG,TANGMUMAOJINGCHANGBEIJIERUISHUBUZHICONGNAERNONGCHULAIDESHUILONGTOUPENDELIANGUNDAIPA。

《MAOYULAOSHU》DONGHUAPIANZAI1967NIANJIUTAOLUNGUOJIQIZHINENGFANSHIDEZHUTI。

02

1400年前后

SUOWEIDE“SHENSHENGJIQI”KAISHIDAXINGQIDAO。BAOKUOKEYILADONGTOUFASIDAIDONGYANJINGHEZUICHUNDEJIQIYESUXIANG,MIANLUBUYUE、DASHENGHOUJIAODEJIQIMOGUI,YIJIGEZHONGGEYANGFEIXIANGDEJIQITIANSHI。ZAIZHEXIESHENSHENGJIQIZHONG,ZUIZHUMINGDEDANGSHUSITELASIBAOZHUJIAOZUOTANGDEJIXIEZHONGBIAO“SANWANGZHONG”。TASHIJIANYU1352NIANDAO1354NIAN,YOUZAI1540NIANDAO1574NIANJIANJINXINGXIUZHENG。YIZHIJIQIGONGJIZHANZAISANWANGZHONGSHANGTAITOUTINGXIONG,PAIDACHIBANG,GAOSHENGDAMING。GONGJIXIAMIAN,XINGPANZHUANDONG,DONGFANGSANBOSHIHESHENGMUZICHUCHANG。LUOMAZHUSHENDAIBIAOLEYIZHOULIDEBUTONGRIQI;YIGEYINGER、YIWEISHAONIAN、YIMINGSHIBINGHEYIWEILAORENFENBIEDAIBIAOLERENSHENGDESIJIEDUAN,TAMENFENBIEZAIMEIKEZHONGSHIQIAOZHONG;CIWAI,DANGLAORENQIAOWANYIXIAOSHIZHONGDEZUIHOUYIKEZHONGSHI,JIXIEYESUCHUXIAN,DANSHIJIERTABIANTUICHUWEISISHENRANGLU,SISHENYONGGUTOUQIAOZHONG。

ZHELEISHENSHENGJIQIZAIXIYINXINTUSHANGQUDELEFEICHANGDADECHENGGONG。JIAOSHIZEKEJIECITUIGUANGYIXILIEJIAOYI。ZHEBENLAISHIYIJIANSHUANGFANGHULIDEHAOSHI,DANQUEJINAOLENEIXIEQIANCHENGDEXINTU,TAMENRENWEIZHEXIESHENSHENGJIQIRANGRENMENDEYANJINGPIANLILEZHENZHENGDESHENLING,JIZHONGDAOXUJIADEJIQIOUXIANGSHANG。ZAI16SHIJIDEZONGJIAOGAIGEYUNDONGZHONG,DALIANGSHENSHENGJIQIZAODAOPOHUAI。JINGUANRUCI,XUDUOSHENSHENGJIQIRENGRANAOGUOLENEIXIEQIANCHENGDEZONGJIAOGAIGEZHEDECUICANZHISHOU,GUOQUNEIXIEREZHONGYUZHIZAOSHENSHENGJIQIDEGONGJIANGMENZEDALIANGZHUANXIANGSHISULINGYU。ZAIBAITUOLESHENSHENGJIQIDESHUFUHOU,JIQIJISHUFANERHUODELEXINSHENG,GENGDUOFEIZONGJIAOYONGTUDESHISUJIQIBEISHEJICHULAI。QIZHONGJIUBAOKUODA·FENQIDEJIQIQISHI。

BENWENNIANBIAOZHUYAOGENJUJIEXIKA·LISIJIN《YONGBUTINGXIEDESHIZHONG:JIQI、SHENGMINGDONGNENGYUXIANDAIKEXUEDEXINGCHENG》YISHUZHENGLI。《YONGBUTINGXIEDESHIZHONG:JIQI、SHENGMINGDONGNENGYUXIANDAIKEXUEDEXINGCHENG》,ZUOZHE:[MEI]JIEXIKA·LISIJIN,YIZHE:WANGDAN ZHUCONG,XINSI|ZHONGXINCHUBANJITUAN2020NIAN7YUEBAN。

03

1640年至1816年的奇思幻想

ZHEXUEJIADIKAERZAISHENGRIERMANLAIANGDEHUAYUANSHANDONGCANGUANLEYICHANGJIQIQIJING:“JIXIEHAISHENNIPUDUNNAZHUSANCHAJISHANGQIANCHATAMEN。GUANZHONGLUOHUANGERTAO,JIERYOUBEIHAIGUAIZHUIJI,BEIPENDEMANLIANDOUSHISHUI。”ZHECHANGCANGUANJINGLIYOUFALEYICHANGTOUNAOFENGBAO。ZAIQITARENYIXIAOLEZHIHOU,ZHEWEIZHEXUEJIAQUEZAIJIQIZHONGKUIJIANSHIJIEDEZHENLI:“DONGWUHERENTIDEBENZHIDOUSHIJIXIEDE”。

DIKAERTICHUDEGUANDIANSHICONGJIXIEDEJIAODUJIEDUSHENGMINGDEGEFANGMIAN,JIUXIANGZHONGBIAOJIANGLIJIEZHONGBIAODEGONGZUOYUANLIYIYANGTOUCHE。DIKAERJIANGTADEDONGWUJIQILUNXIEJINLETADEZHUMINGLUNZHU《SHIJIE》ZHONG,YOUZAILINGYIBUMINGZHU《FANGFALUN》ZHONGZAICICHANSHULEZHEYIGUANDIAN。ZHEBENSHUYINQILECHANGDALIANGGESHIJIDEGUANGFANTAOLUN。OUZHOUZUIZHUMINGDEZHEXUEJIA、SHENXUEJIA、YIXUEJIAHEKEXUEJIADOUJIARUDAOZHECHANGRENYUJIQIGUANXIDETAOLUNZHIZHONG。ERQIZHONGJUYOUHUASHIDAIYIYIDE,JIUSHIYIZHIJIQIYAZI。

HUIJINSHIHUIPAIBIANDUIYIZHIYAZILAISHUOMEISHENMEQIGUAI,DANRUGUOZHEYANGZUODESHIYIZHIJIQIYAZI,NEIMEJIUHUICHENGWEIYIGEQIJI。NEISHIYICI1738NIANDEXIANCHANGBIAOYAN,SHOUXIANTAJUJIAOBINGYANXIALEYIXIEYUMIHEGUWU ;RANHOUTAYIWEISHENCHANGDITINGDUNLEYIXIA ;ZUIHOUTATONGGUOWEIBUPAIBIANLE。TANENGGOUXIYINOUZHOUGEGUODERENQIANLAICANGUAN,JIUSHIYINWEITAZUIHOUNEICHOUQIHONGHONGDEPAIXIE。

JIQIYAZIDEZHIZAOZHEWOKANGSONGDUIYAZIPAIBIANDEYUANLIHUIMORUSHEN,TAZHISHIXUANCHENGZIJISHIZAI“MOFANGZIRAN”,RANGYAZICHIJINQUDESHIWUXIANGZHENDEDONGWUYIYANGZAITINEIFENJIERANHOUBIANCHENGFENBIANPAIXIECHULAI。ZHEYINQILEYIPIANZHENGLUN,FANDUIZHERENWEIZHEBUGUOSHIGEEZUOJUBAXI,DANZHICHIDERENQUERENWEIZHEZHENGMINGLERENLEIKEYIXIANGZAOWUZHUCHUANGZAORENLEIYIYANGCHUANGZAOCHUJIQISHENGWU。HUOZHEGENGJINYIBU,TAZUOSHILEDONGWUHERENLEIDEBENZHIDOUBUGUOSHITAIJIQI。

LA·MEITELIKEWEIWOKANGSONGZUIZHONGSHIDEFENSIZHIYI,DANTAYUQITAFENSIDEBUTONGZHICHUSHITAHUIZHUSHULISHUO。ZAITADEDIYIBENZHUZUO《LINGHUNDEZIRANZHI》YINWEICHUNUJIAOHUIERBEIFENSHAOSHI,TAPAODAOLELAIDUN,BINGZAINEILIWANCHENGLENEIBENYINGXIANGHOUSHIDEMINGZHU《RENSHIJIQI》。

《RENSHIJIQI》,[FA] LA·MEITELIZHU,GUSHOUGUANYI,SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN2011NIAN7 YUEBAN

ZHEBENSHUTICHULEXUDUOJILIEDEGUANDIAN,LINGHUNZHISHIGE“CANGBAIWULIDEZIYAN”,YONGLAIBIAOSHI“SHENTIKEYISIKAODENEIBUFEN”,JIDANAO。ZHEGEQIGUANYONGYOUKEYIYONGLAISIKAODEJIROU,“JIUXIANGTUISHANGYOUKEYIYONGLAIZOULUDEJIROUYIYANG”。TAJIANGSHENTISHIWEI“ZHONGBIAO”,“YITAIKEYIZIJIYUNZUODEJIQI”。YUTATONGSHIDAIDEQIMENGSHIDAIZUIZHONGYAODEZHERENZHIYIDIDELUOCONGTADE《RENSHIJIQI》ZHONGJIEJIANLEXUDUONEIRONG,JINGUANZHEWEIWENHELIXINGDERENBEISHUZHONGXUDUOJIJINDEGUANDIANSUOXIYIN,DANQIZHONGANHANDEFEIDAODEHUADENEIRONGYOURANGTAXINSHENGBUAN。DIDELUOHOULAIZHENGSHI,YAORENSHIDAORENLEIJIUSHIBUNEIMEWANMEIDEJIQI,“JIUSHILIJIEYIXIAXINTIAO :ZHIYOUYIZHONGMEIDE——GONGZHENG ;ZHIYOUYIZHONGZEREN——KAIXIN ;ZUIHOUZONGJIE :BUYAOGAOGUSHENGHUO,BUYAOJUPASIWANG”。

LA·MEITELIDEGUANDIANYEQIFALEHOUSHIDERENMEN,JIRANRENSHIJIQI,NEIJIQISHIBUSHIYEKEYISHIREN?

04

1921年到2018年

JIEKEKEHUANXIAOSHUOJIAKALEIER·QIAPEIKECHUANGZUOLEYIBUXIJU《LUOSUMUDEWANNENGJIQIREN》(Rossum’s Universal Robots),ZHENGSHITA,HUOZHEGENGQUEQIEDISHUOSHITADEDIDIYUESEFUCANKAOJIEKEYU“ robota ”CHUANGZAOLEJIQIREN(Robot)ZHEGECI。ZHEGECIZAIJIEKEYUZHONGDEYISIZHI“KUGONG”HUO“LAOYI”。ZHEGEJIQIRENYEQUESHISHIRENLEIDENULI,TASHIGONGCHANGLIGONGYELIUSHUIXIANZHIZAOCHUDECHANPIN。ZUOZHEDEYONGYIBUYANERYU,SUOWEIDEJIQIRENJIUSHIGONGYEWENMINGXIA“JIXIEHUADEREN”,TAKEYISHUOSHIZUIZAOYIDAIDEGONGYEJIQIRENDEDAIBIAO,DANTADEBINGLENGWUQINGYEXIANGZHENGZHUGONGYEHUAZHONGRENXINGDEZHUJIANSANGSHI。

《LUOSUMUDEWANNENGJIQIREN》HONGDONGQUANQIU,HUODEJUDACHENGGONG。JINGUANQIAPEIKEDEXIANGFASHITONGGUOJIQIRENDEZUIZHONGFANPANTANSUORENDEJIXIEHUASUODAILAIDEZHONGZHONGEGUO,DANSHIDEQIFAN,JIQIRENFANERCHENGLECHAOLIUDEYINLINGZHE,TAMEN“DAIBAN、ZHONGZHANG、DIAOSUYIYANGDEWAIGUAN”JIFALEFUZHUANGSHEJISHIDELINGGAN。XUDUORENSHOUDAOQIFAFENFENKAISHIZHIZAOGEZHONGGEYANGDERENXINGJIQIREN。JIQIRENDECHAOLIUYIFABUKESHOU。QIZHONGYINQIXUANRANDABODESHI1928NIANDANSHENGDEJIQIREN“AIRUIKE”,“TADEYANJINGWAIXIE,YANZHUSHIDIANDONGDE,ZUIBUMEIYOUYACHIYEMEIYOUZUICHUN。XIONGHESHOUBEIDOUSHIZHUANGJIA,XIGAICHUKEJIANRUILIDEJINSHUGUANJIE”,TAGEIRENDAILAIDEGANJUEBUSHIGONGYEHUADECHENGJIU,ERSHIYIZHONGHAIRENDEKONGJUGAN,“TADELIANYIDONGBUDONG,XIANGJILEDIANYING《FULANKENSITAN》LIDEGUAIWU”。

JUBEN《LUOSUMUDEWANNENGJIQIREN》,[JIEKE]KALEIER·QIAPEIKEZHU,2013NIAN7YUEBAN

ERDAOLE2018NIAN,ZAIJINGGUOSANCIDADEBANBENSHENGJIHOU,BOSHIDUNDONGLIGONGSIXIANGWAIJIEZHANSHILESHENGJIBANDERENXINGJIQIRENATELASI(Atlas),TAXIANGRENYIYANGYOUTOUBU、QUGANHESIZHI,“SHUANGYAN”SHILIANGGELITICHUANGANQI。BINGQIEYIJINGJUYOULEYIDINGDEZIKONGNENGLI。10YUE12RIDEYANSHIZHONG,TASHENZHIZHANGWOLEPAOKUZHEXIANGJIXIANYUNDONG。RENGONGZHINENGJISHUDEFAZHAN,RANGJIQIRENCHULEZIZHUYUNDONGZHIWAI,GENGZHANGWOLEXUEXIJIQIAO。RENLEIYUJIQIRENZHIJIANDECHAJUSIHUYUELAIYUESHAO。JULIAXIMOFUTICHUDERENGONGZHINENGDEJISHUQIDIANDEJIANGLINSIHUYUELAIYUEJIN。DANJIQIRENJIUJINGNENGZOUDEDUOYUAN,MUQIANRENGRANQUJUEYURENLEIDEYIYUAN。DANJIUXIANGDANGCHURENLEIXUANBUYAOBAITUOZAOWUZHUDEZHIPEI,CHENGWEIZIJIMINGYUNDEZHURENSHISUOFASHENGDEYIYANG。MIANDUIJIQIRENZHONGDUOKENENGDEWEILAIZHONGCHUXIANDEZHONGZHONGWUFAYULIAODEWENTI,RENMENZIJI,HUOXUZHINENGXUANZEJIANKOUBUYAN。

05

機器人三定

KEHUANSHISHANGZUIZHONGYAODEZUOJIAYISAKE·AXIMOFUZAIXIAOSHUO《ZHUANQUANQUAN》ZHONGTICHULEZHUMINGDE“JIQIRENSANDINGLV”:

YI、JIQIRENBUDESHANGHAIRENLEI,HUOYINBUZUOWEISHIRENLEISHOUDAOSHANGHAI。

ER、CHUFEIWEIBEIDIYIDINGLV,JIQIRENBIXUFUCONGRENLEIDEMINGLING。

SAN、CHUFEIWEIBEIDIYIJIDIERDINGLV,JIQIRENBIXUBAOHUZIJI。

DANHOULAI,AXIMOFUJIARULEYITIAOXINDINGLV:DILINGDINGLV。

LING、JIQIRENBUDESHANGHAIRENLEIZHENGTI,HUOYINBUZUOWEISHIRENLEIZHENGTISHOUDAOSHANGHAI。

AXIMOFUDE《ZHUANQUANQUAN》SHOURULETADEXINGXIAOSHUDAIKEHUANMIDEXIAOSHUOJI《WO,JIQIREN》ZHONG,AXIMOFUWEIZHEBENSHUXINXIELE《YINYAN》,ER《YINYAN》DEXIAOBIAOTIJIUSHI《JIQIRENXUEDESANDADINGLV》。ZHESANDAFAZEYECHENGWEILEKEHUANJIEZUIJINGDIANDEMINGYANZHIYI,WEIYIKEKANYUTAPIMEIDE,HUOXUZHIYOUYUZHOUWANWUDEZHONGJIDAAN“42”。

JINGUANSANDADINGLVKANSIKANCHENGWANMEI,DANLIMIANQUECHONGMANLELOUDONG。SANDADINGLVZHONGDE“REN”HE“JIQIREN”DEDINGYIBENSHENDOUMOHUBUQING,JIQIZHINENGYANJIUSUODAILIZHURENLUYI·HAIERMUZHICHU,SANDADINGLVCUNZAIZHUNEIZAIDEDUIKANGXINGHEYOUQUEXIANDEYIWULUNLIKUANGJIA,ERZUIXIANERYIJIANDESHITATIXIANCHUDESHIRENDUIJIQIRENDEWANQUANZHIPEIQUANHEZHUZAIQUAN,TADEMUDEJIUSHIWEICHIJIQIRENXIANGNULIYIYANGDUIRENLEIJUEDUIFUCONGDESHEHUIZHIXU。ZAIZHETAODINGLVZHIXIA,RENYUJIQIRENYONGYUANBUHUIPINGDENGXIANGDAI,ZHEYEYIWEIZHUDUOLAAMENGZHEYANGNENGCHENGWEIRENLEIZHENZHENGPENGYOUDEJIQIRENJIANGYONGYUANWUFACHUXIAN,FANDAOKENENGHUICHUXIANNEIZHONG“DOUSHIWEINIHAO”DECHAOJIDIANNAOHAL9000,ZHIBUGUOTADEZUOFABUSHIBARENLEIGANJINSHAJUE,ERSHIRANGTAMENCHUYUQIANGJIADEJUEDUIANQUANZHIZHONG。

XIANGGUAN:

王熙鳳常夸耀王家地位顯赫,為何卻不提自己的父親?本 文 約 5700 字閱 讀 需 要 15 min《紅樓夢》中,王熙鳳第一次正式出場是在小說的第3回,林黛玉初到賈府。一語未了,只聽后院有人笑聲,說:“我來遲了,不曾迎接遠客!”黛玉納罕道:“這些人個個皆斂聲屏氣,恭肅嚴整如此,這來者系誰,這樣放誕無禮?”看得出,曹雪芹對王熙鳳的出場是費了心思的,短短幾句話,就將她“潑皮破落戶兒”的性格展露無遺。與這種精心安排形成鮮明對比的是,小說對其家世背景卻著墨不多,只說她出身金陵王家。87版《紅樓夢》截圖,鄧婕飾演王熙鳳王熙鳳自己雖也在閑聊時提過自己的娘家有多顯赫,卻從沒談論過自己的父親。這一現..

機器人進化史:走向哆啦A夢還是HAL9000?如果要舉出這個世界上最著名的機器人,哆啦A夢絕對可以名列前茅。這位昵稱為“藍胖子”的機器人誕生于22世紀,不僅是人類最得力的助手,也是最親密的朋友。哆啦A夢和野比大雄之間經由尋常點滴產生的友情,毫無疑問是真摯動人的。它會因為別人管他叫“貍貓”而忿忿不平,也會一本正經地跟野比大雄講道理,教他學會自立。擁有超越人類自身之上的能力,同時又具有人類的個性、情感甚至是性格缺陷。哆啦A夢恰恰是人類心目中機器人發展的一個理想的趨勢:機器人越來越像人。但強加的善意也可能會成為惡意。阿瑟·克拉克在1969年出版的《2001》中飛船的超級電腦HAL9000,便是這..

安東尼奧尼的電影,為何總是戛然而止藝術《一堆謊言:安東尼奧尼的故事速寫》作者:[意]米開朗基羅·安東尼奧尼譯者:林淑琴版本:后浪 | 四川文藝出版社2021年1月推薦指數:★★★★☆作為戰后歐洲電影的代表人物,安東尼奧尼曾被羅蘭·巴特稱作是真正意義上的“現代藝術家”。從早期的《波河上的人》到上世紀六十年代的 “現代愛情三部曲”(《奇遇》《夜》《蝕》),他的大部分電影都在試圖探索現代社會某種形而上的精神困境,譬如《夜》所描繪的中產階級道德僵局,亦或是《紅色沙漠》中失序的城市景觀與內心世界。這本出自安東尼奧尼的創作筆記不長,由33個片段組成,大部分都是關于電影劇本的構思。..

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